Adult chate rooms
The third part is focused on patients with specific conditions, and those with certain long-term comorbidities where a modified approach and different treatment decisions may be necessary.Cardiac arrest caused by pure hypoxaemia is uncommon.It is seen more commonly as a consequence of asphyxia, which accounts for most of the non-cardiac causes of cardiac arrest.There are many causes of asphyxial cardiac arrest ( If breathing is completely prevented by airway obstruction or apnoea, consciousness will be lost when oxygen saturation in the arterial blood reaches about 60%.The time taken to reach this concentration is difficult to predict, but is likely to be of the order 1–2 min.In comparison with simple apnoea, the exaggerated respiratory movements that frequently accompany airway obstruction will increase oxygen consumption resulting in more rapid arterial blood oxygen desaturation and a shorter time to cardiac arrest.For improving recall during ALS, these are divided into two groups of four, based upon their initial letter – either H or T – and are called the ‘4Hs and 4Ts’: Hypoxia; Hypo-/hyperkalaemia and other electrolyte disorders; Hypo-/hyperthermia; Hypovolaemia; Tension pneumothorax; Tamponade (cardiac); Thrombosis (coronary and pulmonary); Toxins (poisoning).The second part covers cardiac arrest in special environments, where universal guidelines have to be modified due to specific locations or location-specific causes of cardiac arrest.
Prevent recurrence of electrolyte disorders by removing any precipitating factors (e.g. This potassium gradient across cell membranes contributes to the excitability of nerve and muscle cells, including the myocardium.
Severe hyperkalaemia has been defined as a serum potassium concentration higher than 6.5 mmol LThe risk of hyperkalaemia is even greater when there is a combination of factors such as the concomitant use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers and potassium-sparing diuretics.
Exclude hyperkalaemia in all patients with an arrhythmia or cardiac arrest.
Irrespective of the cause of cardiac arrest, early recognition and calling for help, including appropriate management of the deteriorating patient, early defibrillation, high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with minimal interruption of chest compressions and treatment of reversible causes, are the most important interventions.
In certain conditions, however, advanced life support (ALS) guidelines require modification.